Ilustrados comunidad mundial educativa
Inicio | Escribenos
User: Pass: Recordar ó (Registrate!)

| !Publicar Articulo¡

Qué es electroneurobiología? La atmósfera intelectual Conceptos técnicos principales El descubrimiento de la Doppelrinde

Resumen: Aquí se explican muy esquemáticamente, en castellano, ingles y aleman, la historia de la tradición neurobiologica argentino-germana y algunos puntos especificos de las relaciones mente-cerebro.
2,048 visitas
Rating: 0
Tell a Friend

1. Introducción

El 17 de julio de 1899 llegó Christofredo Jakob a este laboratorio, flamante por entonces. El sabio venía de Erlangen, a insertarse en el proyecto de forjar nuestro país sobre sólidas bases científicas. Proyecto crudo, de trasplante sin rodeos, a menudo al borde del prejuicio de creer que el criollo, solo, no podría lograr nada. Pero Jakob se quedó hasta morir -cincuenta y siete años-, formó familia, afectos y casi cinco mil intelectuales; exploró regiones ignotas de la Patagonia y los Andes, y produjo descubrimientos científicos tan adelantados que muchos fueron re-descubiertos en el extranjero entre treinta y sesenta años después, y otros hoy marcan el futuro rumbo de la ciencia del órgano cerebral.

2. ¿Qué es electroneurobiología?

El estado de los campos eléctricos cerebrales es la vía común adonde desemboca la neuroquímica.

 Toda la complejidad neuroquímica del cerebro se vierte sobre el estado de sus campos eléctricos. Sus doscientas mil especies químicas, sus casi doscientos neurotransmisores y neuromoduladores, se hallan al servicio de esculpir un estado dinámico en esos campos eléctricos. (No es necesario explicar todo esto aquí; pero, para connoisseurs, cabe consignar que lo hacen por vía de las fluctuaciones integradas de los orbitales electrónicos en reacción a la movilización fisiológica de portadores de carga). Las variaciones de estos campos eléctricos determinan las diferentes caracterizaciones subjetivas (emotivas, o "movientes", como placeres y dolores; o sólo señalantes, como muchas perceptualidades al estilo de tonos y colores; o bien combinadas) que el alma lee.

La electroneurobiología no es ninguna ciencia del alma, de cuyos arcanos todo lo ignora excepto que no lee química: las producciones del cerebro que directamente generan caracterizaciones subjetivas no son moléculas ni sus reacciones, sino el colectivo electrónico a cuyo estado la presencia de aquellas contribuye. Átomos y moléculas suelen reaccionar entre sí y la selección natural selecciona sus organizaciones, pero éstas y aquéllas son sólo excusas instrumentadas para modular, en los organismos controlados por psiquismo, los contenidos sensoperceptuales (noémata, plural de nóema). Independientemente de su "lectura" o aprehensión (nóesis).

La electroneurobiología busca describir en qué difieren los estados físicos que generan la aprehensión-de-un-rojo, de los que generan la aprehensión-de-un-miedo, o de un verde, o de un placer, o de cierto olor, cuando estas sensaciones son imaginadas, recordadas o percibidas. También busca describir en qué difieren todos ellos de la carencia de contenidos de consciencia, cuando fármacos que producen anestesia general (por sí mismos, o "gatillando" receptores) tornan más flúida la membrana que compartimenta al tejido gris. ¿Cómo afecta este cambio a aquellos estados físicos que generan las diferentes caracterizaciones subjetivas, impidiéndoles obrar? ¿Les impone un estado similar al dormir sin soñar, a ese sueño profundo que el electroencefalograma reconoce por sus típicas ondas lentas? Todos los psicolépticos que empleamos, todos los agentes de anestesia general que utilizamos, son eficaces, pero no sabremos de qué manera logran su acción hasta no describir, allende su química, esos procesos electroneurobiológicos. Y no sólo hasta no describirlos tal como son en la actualidad, sino además tal como han sido en su desarrollo evolutivo: es cuestión de describir, por ejemplo, la selección natural del dormir llamado profundo (impelida con el desarrollo immunitario de la defensa febril, en el Jurásico); o de la producción de procesos sobre nuevos ejes variativos (en distintas formas animales) donde nuevas especies de emociones hayan podido intensificarse y luego remitir, de modo de permitir a su vez la selección natural de la oportuna producción de estas variaciones afectantes en las diferentes situaciones típicas de las biografías.

Hoy todavía desconocemos por qué se duerme con pérdida de conocimiento (o de retención), por qué se sueña, de dónde viene el relato de un sueño, el guión de un delirio, el contenido de una alucinación, el efecto de los psicofármacos, la fulmínea acción de la anestesia general o de un leve enfriamiento cerebral, el que ciertas moléculas producidas por un cerebro en cierto estado produzcan depresión y otras moléculas euforia, y aun otras una extraña ternura. Curamos, y seguiremos curando, sin ese conocimiento; identificaremos genes, los que producen ciertas moléculas, y otras fuentes que asimismo allegan disrupción química al órgano cerebral, y podremos hasta contrarrestar sus efectos cuando los juzguemos deletéreos. Pero un avance realmente magno exige establecer qué estados físicos producen qué caracterizaciones subjetivas. Electroneurobiología es aquella rama de la neurobiología centrada en esta crucial pregunta.

3.La atmósfera intelectual

El viejo Hospicio de las Mercedes (desde hace ya mucho Hospital Dr. José Tiburcio Borda) y el algo más viejo Hospital de Alienadas (ya también tradicionalmente Hospital Dr. Braulio Aurelio Moyano), son hospitales docentes. Contiguos, uno dedicado principalmente a varones y el otro a mujeres, han recibido y reciben pacientes neurológicos y psiquiátricos, de patologías simples o, muy a menudo, combinadas (las que, por ende, no admiten separación asistencial). Son docentes porque su función, aparte de curar, es enseñar a curar, básicamente por convenio con las principales casas de altos estudios; y para enseñar investigan. Nuestra patria nunca ha sido tan colosalmente rica como para abandonar la investigación fundamental, pagando sus noticias a complacientes proveedores foráneos; y si la abandonara nunca será rica. Hacia épocas de la primera Guerra Mundial, sin psicofármacos y en un necesario auge del hospitalismo, cada Hospicio cobijaba unos seis mil pacientes (hoy la cuarta parte, pero por internaciones harto más breves, atendiendo así a muchos más pacientes) y, para corroborar e interpretar las observaciones en los vivos, proporcionaba casi cuatrocientos cerebros por año. Acompañado por lo común cada uno con su historia clínica, redactada con acuciosidad y penetración. Ninguna otra institución humana provee ésto a la humanidad. Fue y es, así, en sus autopsias, que los muertos enseñan a los vivos. Pero aprender requiere contextuar, y esos estudios neurobiológicos tomaron aquí contexto en una transdisciplinariedad humanístico-científica, de amplitud renacentista. Caracterizóse así la mayor tradición neurobiológica hispanoamericana, conocida informalmente como Escuela Neurobiológica Argentino-Germana, ligada por estrechos vínculos con la tradición normalista argentina, con la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Buenos Aires y con la Facultad de Humanidades de La Plata, con el Círculo Médico Argentino y con la Sociedad de Psicología de Buenos Aires, con la rica tradición paleontológica platense y con las investigaciones del Jardín Zoológico municipal, con la Sociedad Científica Argentina, con la Asociación Nacional del Profesorado y con las labores en criminología y medicina legal, a más de las correspondientes facultades del área biomédica. La inédita fecundación mutua se sostenía en el compartido maravillarse acerca de qué es persona, y en la compartida conciencia de la necesidad de los recursos intelectuales ajenos para obrar. Dimos así a prensas en Europa la mayor publicación argentina de resultados investigativos hasta la fecha (los dos volúmenes Das Menschenhirn y Vom Tierhirn zum Menschenhirn: Lehman Vlg., Munich, 1911) y aportamos importantísimas contribuciones, algunas mencionadas más abajo en esta misma Página; a menudo, olvidadas en el extranjero por nuestra situación, remota para ellos, y por el empeño en imprimir en nuestra lengua.

4.Main Technical Ideas - Conceptos técnicos principales:

El siguiente texto pertenece a la obra de Alicia Ávila y M. Crocco "Sensing: a new fundamental action of nature" (Inst. for Advanced Study: Buenos Aires, 1996), pág. 22 a 26, y puede citarse consignando esa fuente. Más abajo reproduzco también el índice de ese libro - Sorry: I still have this page on its making. I have had no spare time to render the following paragraphs into Spanish. Yet they afford the succint conceptual landscape owed to whom wishes to know what the matter is about. They are excerpted from the synoptic monograph from Alicia Ávila and M. Crocco "Sensing: a new fundamental action of nature" (Inst. for Advanced Study: Buenos Aires, 1996), pp. 22 a 26; they may be citated quoting such a source. The table of contents of that book is also reproduced hereinafter.]

 

Iron-branded by an all-penetrating naturalist-humanist transdisciplinarity which, for scientific furtherance, demands the personal sensitivity proper to wrestle with philosophical and culturological problems (that is to say: peculiarly understood, not as a juxtaposition of specialists, but in the sense cultivated, say, by Weber, Fechner and von Helmholtz), a rather secluded South-American tradition in neurophysics waxed much bent on what, afterwards, became called bioelectricity and dielectrics.

It was prepared by local studies of potent "fish batteries" and ensuing chemoelectricity theses, still in the XVIIIth century; and by Faraday’s and Young’s "new physics", as imparted in the "unforgettable lessons" by dielectricist Octavio Fabrizio Mossotti, from his Experimental Physics chair in Buenos Aires between 1828 and 1835.

This last was the same year that, in Paris, Felix Dujardin first described the intracellular milieu, such awesome jelly lacking visible composition yet doubtlessly organized, as "une substance appelée sarcode"; at whose ability, when making brains, of bringing sentience-contents forth, we never omitted wondering. As the tradition became the so-called Argentine-German Neurobiological School, incepted since 1879 though fully fledged only since 1899, this endeavour struck roots in momentous electroneurobiological experiments. I. e., in the much-needed, worldwide-first electrostimulation mapping of an exposed, conscious human brain heroically prolonged during eight months (from September 1883 to May 1884) against overwhelming odds that risked the subject's death and the experimenter's loss of career and marriage, and silenced over a century by a medical-politician plagiarist. [It is detailed in the next heading on this Page: MS] In this traditionated atmosphere, contrarily to the aforesaid obloquious conviction, some of us (initially the physicists), in the past thirty years reacted against those adventitious limiting features in neurodynamics.

In doing it, no doubt indeed mostly by dint of our very remoteness, these physicists felt uncompelled by the most cumbrous cultural expectancies.

Certainly, neither behaviourism nor neuronism thundered here. (Behaviourism was expressly rejected in 1907: Alicia Moreau de Justo, "La vida y los fenómenos psíquicos", El Libro (Buenos Aires) 2 (1907), 363-371.)

Nor emergentistic theories, pronouncing psychisms to be mere perspectives or equivalent "aspects" own of some higher level description. Or either (upon certain grasping of the physical being as an "observer"-posited logical predication, that "instantiates properties" (Nota 3) and, accordingly undistinguishing the causative actuality of the present from unexisting future or past situations, abandons the notion of absolute time at all) pronouncing psychisms to be "productive creations" whether of the mere complexity (hodologies) or of the mere simplicity (immateriality).

Nor, outlooks glad to forgo natural facts by self-limiting to analyze formulations and their use, as if being physical just were to be the value of a variable; or, barely, an excuse for making true and false (including universally and existentially quantified) statements about them.

Nor the derisive natural-philosophy vogue, of minding one-witness, causally-effectual physical facts as "qualia" or "unreduced phenomenal properties", whose privacy is arbitrarily equated to powerlessness. (Nota 4)

Yet, we were also stimulated by certain explosive internal conceptual tension regarding time.

This conceptual tension was bequeathed by one of the tradition's founders. A gifted polymath, as all them, he was also the tradition's harbinger and chief mentor. That founder was a neurobiologist devoting himself since 1906 to model neuropilar psychogenesis (neuropil is the bulky "fiber" feltwork, or drenched craticula, interjacent amidst the neurons’ bodies) on reverberating interference patterns as collective or gestalt excitation modes, whose interference defines segmentations localizable, translationally invariant, and mutually impenetrated. His name was Prof. Christfried Jakob (1866-1956). As an anatomist who conceived organisms as self-relaxing oscillatory systems, he acutely sensed the prelation of time processes to yield spatial aggrupations, including what he called representational atomicities.

So Prof. Jakob emphasized the time-kerned seriation of chemodiffusion carrier waves making sensorimotor rhythms, as the periodic forcing (of coupled nonlinear oscillators) foundation of the spatial anatomy. Just like as interfering neuroactivity defines segmented contents. Not inversely, as on more "stocky", still customary anatomical building blocks.

Both in evolutionary and developmental differentiation and in actual functioning, Jakob’s principle to describe any biological organization of physical effects (Nota 5) was the epicyclic modulation of concentrational oscillations of chemoreactants into cycles, rhythms, kinesias, praxias, gnosias and symbolias (a series of technical terms to be made clearer on subsequent pages), ranked encaptically as biochemical carrier waves each bearing the next —"waves woven on the backs of waves"— and localized, through self-compartmentation, onto successive scales. (In fact, "time scales" do not exist. Space or simultaneous dispersivity has extramental scales, time no, and contrarily to quantities of force or multitude, "quantities of time" not exist: nature self-appends from site to site, not self-attaches from instant to instant, so "more than one present" is but a present reference, a way of talking, discounted as such only by said taking the physical being as a posited predication, devising logic as a fundamental structure underlying physical interactions, or hypostasis; howbeit —in fact— in this universe proper predication not suffices to acquire actuality. All this shall concern us below). Thus, Jakob conceived anatomophysiology as what today would rather fit a dynamic quasi-fractality of epicycles forcing a pattern-forming diversification of frequency-locking regimes, locked to the physical feasibilities for body operation over each durational scale. It makes anatomy continuous from slowly-changing osteology to the intentional combination of alluded representational atomicites; from tertiary molecular structures down to bodily acclimatization.

Far off any iterative, fractal routine, yet these frequency-locking regimes force a temporal organization in the series of cycles, rhythms, kinesias, praxias, gnosias and symbolias, where the originating cycles could nowise be infinitesimal. In it, Jakob posited the boundary conditions that fix the differential production of the "intonations" which experience is non-indifferent to (= the evolutionary selection of the correlation with the survival and reproduction of the life cycles, of: fury, pleasurefulness, fear, grief and other target-linking emotions, lust, sleepiness, hunger, thirst and other rebalance-appetizing states, as well as the non-emoting but signalizing sensoperceptual intonations; a tie that Jakob called biophylaxis), neither in any special subcellular device, nor in any other, even more complex arrangement implemented on a larger scale; but in the resonant coupling of those concentrational oscillations, on which kerned (= nested one within another) modulations are adaptively impressed.

It must be taken into account that deploying the "atomic" contents which the brain provides for a thought; displaying a blinking; moving an arm; growing a bone; deploying the contents of the chest in embryogeny, and modifying the patterns of life cycles in phylogeny, could not have been deemed intrinsically different processes in the anatomo-physiological exposition of said series of cycles, rhythms, kinesias, praxias, gnosias and symbolias. Their peculiarities are mainly proper of scales of situational transformation, or "interval scales".

This mutual relativity of their "epicycled" dynamics shows certainly in the regulations attained outside psychisms. E. g., in the compliant accommodation of the castes of eusocial insects. Each of whose specialized "forms" compounds the dynamics of both (I) "static" morphologies —namely, the maturation to different categories of soldiers and workers— and (II) a repertoire of fixed neurobiological sensibilities that, by default, behave in each task whose need for the colony is pending of "appeasing" at the moment (that is: is currently demanded to such caste’s level of ganglionary sensibility, with no individual simulating any strategic course of the colony). In life cycles, morphology is deployment. Omnipresently. It orchestrates diverse intrinsic celerities. Sometimes it behooves, methodologically, to artificially focuse just on some pair of supporting-supported causal levels (assigned as "structure and function": the more flitting running as the less "substantial", or functional); sometimes, to highlight the entire fractal-like succession of their "epicycled" kernings.

The biological regulations attained by way of psychism do not situate themselves differently, although they implement different physical means. Sentience and semovience are amongst the interactions present in the system. As Jakob described the psychogenetic landscape in 1907, two or three lustrums after the rediscovery (1890/96) and international examination (here it was done by Richard Sudnik and Mariano Alurralde) of Caton’s publication in 1875 of his finding of electric oscillations intrinsic of the brain activity (Nota 6), the cycles and rhythms at the basis of the above morphogenetic series, reputed by that time of a chemoelectrical nature onto which a further vital fluid might (or might not) have added its own tensional state and relaxations, ratified the fundamental anatomo-physiological role of the physical oscillations. How do they causally compound themselves?

As Jakob portrayed them, these oscillations in the psychism-supporting brain tissue do initially segment a sort of standing waves, sustained by patterns of local neuroactivity which not pertain to a single, particular mental content but, as the "standing waves" interfere or "encroach their feet", enter to cast many. Unmindful allusion to bounded wholes foreruns object perception. Needfully. Though non-locally distributed on tissue’s volume and reciprocal interval reference, these plurally-used "standing waves" are to be observed as local quasi-periodicities of the nervous "ébranlements". Yet, they at once enter their mutual, transforming interactions.

Which include those of the sentience, or physical interactions that produce their nomical effects through their affecting a non-indifference constitutively circumstanced thereto. Psychisms operate repositioning segmented objects composed by that sort of standing waves plus their experienceable intonations, and so they do not process natural symbolic representations of more elementary data. The existential to be, namely that one which allows other psychisms, with diverse contents, to be more or less like it (the difference coming from the different contents, the sameness from their existential being), and which is absent from extramentalities (whose being is, therefore, not existential), indissociably appears in nature with the intonations, whose extramentality admits to be causally swayed by other extramentalities. This sort of "standing waves", sustained by reverberating neurobiological macro- and microcircuits, interpenetrate whilst their temporal organization constitutes that system of segmented, or individualized, stationarities that Jakob also called representational atomicities, whose constitutive interactions include the mentioned sentience’s effects.

Notas (De los párrafos citados; en la publicación se hallan todas a pie de página, con la numeración indicada. / Notes of the quoted pages; they are all footnotes in the printed work, numbered as follows):

3. The physical traits, characteristically featured by any sort of real thing —i.e., a photon, as different from an electron—, differ from that thing’s existence or inexistence. Being or instead not being is a brute factuality. As such, the determination of actuality is really foreign to, and not included in, any physical determination of features. Yet no entity lacks identity. This determination of features —even a cosmological evolution of the causal resultances, or even evolving modalities of interaction compounding causation differently at each stage and eventual branch— just distributes regularly the brute empirical fact whereby there is something rather than instead nothing at all. That assortment of new features is variegated because actual physical things (the quantum field system and eclosions) do not form a homogeneous stuff, as they really —not just as instrumentally posited by classical physics; see below in the main text— are of diversified sorts (= each real physical thing is thus found finite), so making nature a "universe"; whereas their determination of inexistence or existence (= of their present actuality or "interactivity") depends on that any reality really exists, and thus cannot consist in said variegation of attributes that "instantiates properties". Howbeit complexified might said variegation be. Present actuality is not in turn variegable. Only entire. And fully real; or, either, wholly absent. The existence apportioned in the physical, finite realities is never finite in itself, partial, just specific, or incomplete. Correspondingly, finite entities are never defined after their existence. Neither the physical determination is causative of actuality (of its field system or of singular eclosions) nor actuality’s causation is just predicative of features. This distinction, obscured because the causal determination of features never runs apart of actuality (= never runs as if the features were forerunning things, to become amalgamated), is however noticed in the Western thought up from Aristotle (Analyt. Hyst. 92 b 10), Boetius (appr. 470-525; cf. De Hebdomadibus II), al-Farabî (deceased in Baghdad about 950), Ibn Sinâ ("Avicenna", 980-1037), a minority of the pre-Renaissance Schoolmen, and Spinoza (1632-1677: Eth. I, Pr. 24; cf. Pr. 28).

 4. This improper equation presents feelings and perceptualities as caused constituents of nature that, because of their postulated being non-causal by themselves (and not, instead, because of their being just incommunicable through channels), ought to stay restricted to a particular reference frame. (Owing to that affixing, they should perform as virtual optical images, vanishing if re-described from moving reference frames; not even operative as their conjugate, the real images, which do subsist but vary when their observer moves, as resplendent glitterances, photographable rainbows and skin-taning reflections on water; the causative action of the components, on the other hand, issuing from real images yet absent of virtual ones, is of course found invariant across all reference frames.) In other words: such equation of privacy to physical powerlessness presents feelings and perceptualities as unphysical ostensions, unconstituted away of some particular reference frame —like virtual images in the "depths" of a mirror— but improperly attributing such "fixation" to lack of causal efficacy for connecting them nomically. This lack, had it been true, would indeed have prevented feelings and perceptualities to causally foreordain what is to change when their observer moves, thus affixing their describability to a single reference frame, in partial coincidence with observations. (Yet, as feelings and perceptualities do cause physical effects, their one-witnessedness must come from another physical source.) That specious deficiency would have thus prevented exchanging observers in that reference frame, whose particularity should thus have become secluded privacy. Wherefore the intrinsic pith of the "qualia" conception is to pretend that all observations in physics are observations of extramental position, and privacy foreign to physics.

 5. Chr. Jakob, Curso de neurobiología - Año lectivo 1900, Hospicio de las Mercedes (Buenos Aires). The course was summarized in: La Semana Médica vol. VII. Dates: 28 June 1900, pp. 325-327; 12 July 1900, pp. 354-358; 19 July 1900, pp. 363-366; 9 Aug. 1900, pp. 403-408; 30 Aug. 1900, pp. 439-444; 20 Sept. 1900, pp. 479-481; and 8 Nov. 1900, pp. 589-590.

 6. Albeit the British Medical Journal published two communications reporting the discovery of the brain oscillations of electric potential today called electroencephalographic, the Northern hemisphere learning neglected it for at least fifteen years, except for occassional citations of Caton’s name in lists of experimental reseachers without any comment (e. g., that by G. Sergi, La psychologie psychologique – édit. francaise, Alcan, Paris, 1888, p. 139).

 

 

Un descubrimiento fundamental de Christofredo Jakob (1911): No existe corteza asociativa.

A fundamental discovery of Christfried Jakob (1911): The association cortex nowhere exists.

 

5.El descubrimiento de la Doppelrinde:

 

"Ueber die Ubiquität der senso-motorischen Doppelfunktion der Hirnrinde als Grundlage einer neuen biologischen Auffassung des kortikalen Seelenorgans"

Citation: Lecture of September 26, 1911 (Munich); Münchener Medizinische Wochenschriff 9, 1912.

"Von den Resultaten seien hier folgende resumiert: I. Alle Regionen der menschlichen und tierischen Hirnrinde ohne Ausnahme sind rezeptorisch tätig, also sensitiver Natur (eigenartig ist nur die Stellung der Ammonsformation, des ältesten Rindenbezirkes) . . . II. Der Hauptanteil dieser sensiblen Strahlungen endet in der kortikalen Aussenschicht (Aussenschicht = Stratum zonale, kleine, mittlere und grössere äussere Pyramiden + Körnerschicht /Stratum intermedium/). . . . III. Die Innenschicht der Rinde ist effektorisch tätig (motorisch), auch sie existiert überall. (Innenschicht = tiefe, grosse und mittlere Pyramiden, tiefe kleiner und polymorphzellige Elemente). . . . IV. Beide Fundamentalschichten haben bei den Saügern bis zum Menschen übereinstimmend einen doppelten Ursprung (monophyletisches Verhalten) und auch bei verschiedenen Vertebratenklassen (Reptilienarten insbesondere) ist ähnliches zu konstatieren. Dagegen gehört der Amphibientyp nicht dazu, mit einiger Ausnahme der Gymnophionen, welch letztere aber nach unseren Untersuchungen geradezu den Fundamentaltypus der Entwicklung des höheren Kortexapparates repräsentieren. Unsere vergleichend kortexhistologischen Studien lehrten uns nun, dass die beiden funktionell verschiedenen kortikalen Fundamentalschichten einen getrennten Ursprung haben: die rezeptorische Aussenschicht entstammt dem Riechhirn (einem sensiblen Hirnteil), die effektorische Innenschicht dem Corpus striatum (einem alten, motorischen Zentral ganglion). Trotz des doppelten Ursprungs gelangt aber die Gesamtrinde, je höher der Hirntyp sich entwickelt hat /,/ zu einer um so innigeren Vereinigung beider Schichten und bei den Säugern führt dies infolge der Ausbildung von weitverzweigten zellulären Protoplasmafortsätzen und Kollateralen der Achsenzylinder einerseits und des Auftretens massenhafter Binnenzellen und Zwischenschichtszellen andererseits zu einer förmlichen sekundären Verschmelzung der in der Anlage getrennten Rindenfundamentalschichten; ein Prinzip, das insbesondere die Primaten- und somit auch die menschliche Rinde auszeichnet. V. Eine weder rezeptorische noch effektorische Rinde (= "Assoziationsrinde") existiert nirgends . . . Auf die Bedeutung dieser gänzlich neuen Anschauungen von dem Wesen und Wirken unseres Seelenorgans . . . gedenken wir in Bälde zurückzukommen. Hier möchten wir nur darauf hinweisen, dass diese aus der modernen biologischen Gehirnforschung hervorgegangenen Ergebnisse sich in manchem eng mit Anschauungen der neueren Philosophie (vergl. Wundts Apperzeptionstheorie, der Lehre vom Unterbewussten, etc.) berühren, dass sich somit die Ergebnisse der Seelenforschung mit denen der Gehirnforschung nicht mehr, wie bisher, in schroffem Gegensatze befinden, möchten wir als ein besonders bedeutungsvolles Symptom für die Zukunft der Rindenbiologie hervorheben".

Tomado de:
http://electroneubio.secyt.gov.ar/general.htm

Articulos relacionados:
Todo sobre ANTRAX: Agentes, desarrollo y guerra
Resumen:
Descubridor: ROBERT KOCK, Médico y bacteriólogo alemán quien en 1876 demostró por primera vez que un microorganismo vivo era el agente causante de una enfermedad infeccio...
Virus y bacteriófagos
Resumen:
¿Que es un virus?. Estructura viral. Definición de bacteriófagos. Replicación de un virus y ciclo. (Del latín, ‘veneno’), entidades orgánicas compuestas tan sólo de mater...
Conservación de bacterias por el método de suspensión en agua destilada estéril
Resumen:
En una Colección de microorganismos todos los microorganismos depositados son muy valiosos, por lo que su correcta conservación es muy importante. El método de conservaci...
Análisis del procedimiento para la determinación de la dl50 (dosis letal media)
Resumen:
Análisis del procedimiento para la determinación de la dl50 (dosis letal media) a través del método de Probit en un bioensayo. A continuación se realiza un análisis de lo...
Mutaciones
Resumen:
Mutaciones génicas. Mutaciones cromosómicas. Errores de dusyución. Causas de las mutaciones.(V)
Copyright © 2011 ilustrados.com, Monografias, tesis, bibliografias, educacion. Tofos los temas y publicaciones son propiedad de sus respectivos autores ©